Rockwood Park is appropriately named! The rocks found here are quite diverse. They include Precambrian marble, Precambrian gneiss, Precambrian to Cambrian igneous rocks (granite, tonalite, granodiorite and dacite) as well as Devonian sandstone and conglomerate. Two geologic terranes are found in the park.
A major fault called the Caledonia Fault separates two geologic terranes found in this area. The main road past the Lily Lake Pavilion follows the fault line.
Rockwood Park has had a long history of scientific study and geological exploration. The Natural History Society of New Brunswick examined the geology of the park in the late 1800s. Rock specimens collected by Society members in the park can be found in the New Brunswick Museum collection. Howes Cave was discovered in the 1860s and described in the Society Bulletin in 1904. It formed as a result of carbonate bedrock (marble) being dissolved by natural acids in rain and groundwater. In the 1800s a graphite mine operated near the outlet of Lily Lake.
Rockwood Park has many trails that allow opportunities to explore the geology on foot, on a mountain bike, or on horseback. Get up-close by rock climbing with a guide. In the winter it is a great place to explore on cross-country skis or snowshoes.